Learn about some common aviation industry terms and acronyms and understand their meanings.

  • Ailerons

    Are moving parts on the wings that help the maneuver the aircraft during banking turns. ​

  • Air pass

    Tickets sold by airlines for flights within a specific region abroad. They allow passengers to travel to multiple destinations for the price of a single air pass.​

  • Aircraft utilization rate

    Average number of hours per day that the aircraft is in use.​

  • Air-fuel ratio

    Term used to indicate the ratio of air to fuel present in the combustion process of an aircraft engine. During takeoff, the engines use a rich mixture, which delivers more power and less efficiency. Lean mixtures deliver less power since they use less fuel. However, they are more efficient and appropriate for turbines operating in rarefied air.​

  • ALS (Approach Lighting System)

    The approach lighting system allows the pilot to visually identify the runway at night.​

  • Aquaplaning

    Skidding caused by water, snow or slush on the runway.​

  • ASK (Available Seat Kilometers)

    The number of seats available multiplied by the flight distance. It is used to measure the airplane's carrying capacity.​

  • ATC (Air Traffic Control)

    ATC stands for air traffic control. ATC tracks, directs and monitors the movement of aircraft in the air and on land.​

  • Black box

    Super resistant metallic boxes (which, despite their name, are actually orange to make them easier to spot) that contain two electronic systems: a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, which stores technical parameters of the flight, such as altitude, speed and maneuvers made.​

  • Block Time

    Time the aircraft is airborne plus taxiing time (movement of the aircraft on the ground).​

  • Ceiling

    The distance between the ground and the cloud base in the air.​

  • Codeshare agreement

    Allows customers to purchase their tickets from GOL and fly to various countries with partner airlines.​

  • Cumulonimbus

    Is a towering vertical cloud associated with thunderstorms, rain and hail.​

  • Flight plan

    A document created by the pilot in command of the aircraft. It contains operational details of a flight and is filed with the Air Traffic Service (ATS). Pilots may not takeoff without submitting a flight plan.​

  • Flight segment

    The trip made by an aircraft between takeoff and landing.​

  • Flight Simulator

    ​A ground-based device used to train pilots that simulates actual flight conditions. 

  • Foot

    Unit of measurement to express altitude. 1 foot = 30.48 cm​

  • GDS (Global Distribution System)

    Electronic ticket sales system used by most airlines throughout the world.​

  • Go-around

    A go-around is when an airplane approaching for landing is instructed not to land. This is a common maneuver that requires care and attention like any other maneuver.​

  • HOTRAN (Air Transport Time)

    Authorization granted by ANAC (the National Civil Aviation Agency) for an airline to provide regular service along a specific route and according to specific schedule.​

  • Hub

    Airline operations center that allows for connections between flights within its flight network.​

  • ILS (Instrument Landing System)

    The ILS is a landing assistance system equipped with electronic, visual, and audio resources. It provides precision guidance to an aircraft approaching a runway. It consists of a localizer, which is used to guide aircraft along the axis of the runway; a guide slope, which indicates the vertical position of the aircraft in relation to the runway; and marker beacons, which use audio signals to indicate the distance between the aircraft and the runway.​

  • Interline agreement

    Allows customers to purchase their ticket from GOL and make one or more connecting flight with different airlines without having to check-in or check their baggage again. ​

  • Jet bridge

    Walkway connecting the boarding area to the aircraft. It is also known as a gangway, airbridge, air jetty or passenger boarding bridge.​

  • Knot

    A unit of measurement used in aviation to measure velocity. A knot corresponds to one nautical mile (NM) per hour. One NM corresponds to one minute of longitude along the Equator.​


    METAR is a format for reporting hourly meteorological information that is continuously transmitted to the entire country. The information is standardized according to international standards, which allows it to be understood by all pilots. ​

  • No-show

    When a customer does not show up for his flight and does not notify the airline. The customer is usually charged a fine to reschedule the ticket.​

  • Open skies

    An agreement between two countries that permits air traffic to move freely between both countries without restrictions on frequency, times and types of aircraft.​

  • Paying Passengers

    The total number of customers who paid for a ticket and actually traveled.​

  • RPK (Revenue Passenger Kilometers)

    Calculated by multiplying the number of paying passengers by the distance traveled.​

  • Slot

    Permission granted to a pilot to takeoff or land an aircraft at an airport during a specific period of time.​

  • Stall

    Is when the wing no longer produces lift. When the aircraft stalls, it loses altitude quickly.​

  • Taxiing

    The movement of an aircraft on the ground, before takeoff and after landing.​

  • Tiller Wheel

    Equipment that steers the aircraft while it's on the runway.

  • Transponder

    Device used to identify aircraft. It emits a radio signal that is received by an airport's radar and monitored by the flight controller.​

  • Yaw

    When the nose of the aircraft moves to the left or to the right, thus changing direction.​

  • Yield

    Average amount paid by passenger to fly one kilometer.​

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